The menstrual cycle depends on a balance of estrogen, a form of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone, as well as other hormones
- Amenorrhea: Amenorrhea means an absence of periods. When you’re not having any periods, the balance of hormones is usually upset.
- Short menstrual cycles: Because menstrual cycles usually consist of approximately 14 days of follicular or egg development and 14 days of luteal phase, or post-ovulatory phase, anything that shortens either phase can result in periods that are unusually close together.
- Long menstrual cycles: Long menstrual cycles, or periods that are further apart than every 35 days, may be caused by polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS. PCOS is caused by an increased level of the male hormones (androgens)
- Anovulation: Low levels of the hormone LH can result in a syndrome called luteinized unruptured follicle, or LUF. In LUF, an egg develops in a follicle but the LH doesn’t rise high enough to cause release of the egg, resulting in a lack of ovulation (anovulation), according to Georgia Reproductive Specialists.
Prolactin hormone disorder in women
In women, hyperprolactinemia often cause changes in menstruation and infertility.
Some women may lose periods altogether (amenorrhea), and others may have irregular or infrequent menstruation.
Women who are not pregnant or nursing may begin producing breast milk (called galactorrhea). Some women may experience a loss of libido (interest in sex)
Patients with large pituitary tumors (macroadenomas, greater than 10 mm) may also have low levels of the other pituitary hormones (called hypopituitarism) because of pressure of the tumor on the normal gland. Hence, it is important for the physician to measure the other pituitary hormones as well. Macroadenomas, if compressing the optic nerves, could cause loss of peripheral vision as well.
Women with hyperprolactinemia and amenorrhea may have an increased risk for osteoporosis (bone loss). It is important for women with a history of amenorrhea to have bone density measurements performed, even after hyperprolactinemia treatment, to assess the effect of the estrogen deficiency on bone.
Hyperprolactinemia is a condition when excess production of prolactin takes place in non-pregnant women. It can result to irregular or absent periods, discharge from breasts, lack of ovulation and sometimes headaches and visual disorders. These women can have problem in conceiving.